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Suppressing qubit dephasing using real-time Hamiltonian estimation

The system under consideration here is a S-T0 qubit residing in a pair of coupled quantum dots in GaAs/AlGaAs This paper.

In this qubit, there are two control knobs for setting the state of the qubit. The more intuitive of the two is an electric knob: this controls the relative depth of the two potential wells (ε, the detuning) and the coupling between the wells (J). The second knob is due to the magnetic field experienced by the quantum dots. An external field is indeed applied by (typically) a superconducting electromagnet, but this is not the only contribution. There is also a fluctuating magnetic field ΔBz\Delta B_z due to the spin of the nuclear spins in the substrate hosting the quantum dots.

The qubit state precesses around the axis of this magnetic field, and moving to the rotating frame is therefore desirable to mitigate this decohering effect.
However, due to fluctuations of the field, it is not possible to simply switch to the rotating frame by modulating the level of detuning. It is possible, by manipulations of the qubit state, to polarize the substrate (so called - “pumping”) thus minimizing the fluctuations but this has limited effect as there are residual fluctuations. Nevertheless, as the rate of fluctuation is slower than the experimental cycle timescale, a protocol to estimate the magnetic field just before the experiment can be used to switch to the correct rotating frame.

This can be done, for example, by employing Bayesian estimation of the magnetic field. This technique uses a prior by which all magnetic field values in some range are equally probable and uses Bayes theorem to repeatedly update the ( posterior) distribution. The most probably field of the final distribution is assumed to be the external field for the duration of the experiment.

To perform Bayesian estimation, a single-shot state evaluation needs to first be performed. This is done in the first row of the snippet below. The state is measured by measuring the reflection of an RF signal from a Quantum Point Contact (QPC) near the double-dot. The reflected signal is demodulated and the demodulated value is saved to a variable. All this is accomplished with just a single statement.

The following expression then needs to be repeatedly evaluated (in real time) for each possible value of magnetic field:

P(mkΔBz)=12[1+rk(α+βcos(2πΔBztk)]P(m_k|\Delta B_z)=\frac{1}{2}[1+r_k (\alpha+\beta cos(2\pi \Delta B_z t_k)]

Where mkm_k is the qubit state (SS or T0T_0), rkr_k is a factor equal to 1 or -1 depending on the state, and tkt_k is the evolution time of the kthk^{th} measurement. α\alpha and β\beta are numeric constants.

This is done in the first for loop. Note the usage of casting and trigonometric functions which are efficiently implemented on the QOP processor. The second for loop a normalization of the resulting probability distribution. The following section implements equations (1)-(4) in the paper:

measure('measure', 'RF-QPC', None, demod.full('integW1', I))
assign(state[k - 1], I > 0)
save(state[k - 1], state_str)
assign(rk, Cast.to_fixed(state[k - 1]) - 0.5)
with for_(fB, fB_min, fB < fB_max, fB + dfB):
assign(C, Math.cos2pi(Cast.mul_fixed_by_int(fB, t_samp * k)))
assign(Pf[ind1], (0.5 + rk * (alpha + beta * C)) * Pf[ind1])
assign(ind1, ind1 + 1)
assign(norm, 1 / Math.sum(Pf))
with for_(ind1, 0, ind1 < Pf.length(), ind1 + 1):
assign(Pf[ind1], Pf[ind1] * norm)

The maximum value of the resulting vector is then taken as the most probable magnetic field value, and a target procedure can be run, at a frame rotating with the qubit. In this script, a time Rabi experiment is run, but any other procedure can be selected.