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Multiplexed readout

Often due to physical limitations we want to have the ability to use one transmission line or one cavity to interact with multiple qubits with different resonance frequencies. A common technique used in communication systems is to use FDM (Frequency division multiplexing) where numerous signals with different central frequency are combined on a single composite signal which carries all the information. It's made possible by the simple fact that pure signals with different frequencies are orthogonal. A requirement for the protocol is to divide the bandwidth for the desired signals such that there's no overlap in the frequency domain.


We define three quantum elements rr1,rr2,rr3 corresponding to three readout resonators. Each rr is defined with its own resonance frequency, these should be distant enough to enable the FDM protocol.

We also define a readout operation for all the resonators. Notice that the input/output ports for all rr elements are the same, and this is because we 'communicate' with them through the same transmission line.

For simulation purposes the readout pulses for each element is different, and simulate g,e,f states using the Loopback Interface.


Firstly, currently it's only possible to do up to 10 parallel demodulations per device, therefore we readout up to 2 resonators at the same time, because each requires 4 real demodulations. The code is written generally to allow a readout of an arbitrary number of resonators.

To begin the program we align all the resonators, which ensure a simultaneous measurement of all elements. Next, we use the measure command in a for loop to measure all the rr's. Then, we wait on all elements and let the resonator/transmission line relax. Finally, we save the IQ components for each resonator to its corresponding variable, i.e measurement from rr2 is saved to variable I2 and Q2.

with for_(n, 1, n < 500, n + 1):
align(*["rr" + str(i) for i in range(1, rr_num + 1)])
for i in range(rr_num):
measure("readout_pulse","rr" + str(i + 1),"adc",
demod.full("integW_cos", I1[i], "out1"),
demod.full("integW_sin", Q1[i], "out1"),
demod.full("integW_cos", I2[i], "out2"),
demod.full("integW_sin", Q2[i], "out2"),
wait(wait_time, *["rr" + str(i) for i in range(1, rr_num + 1)])
for i in range(rr_num):
assign(I[i], I1[i] + Q2[i])
assign(Q[i], -Q1[i] + I2[i])
save(I[i], "I" + str(i + 1))
save(Q[i], "Q" + str(i + 1))

Post Processing#

For illustration purposes, we fetch the results of each resonator and plot the IQ diagram. Since in our example we use a ground state pulse for the rr1 and excited state pulse for rr2 we expect to get one 'blob' for each resonator. We can verify the the frequency multiplexing worked since the blobs are well separated as excpected for different qubit state.


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